Active Management
Performance is subject to the risk that the advisor’s investment strategies are not suited to achieving the investment objective or do not perform as expected, which may cause the portfolio to lose value or underperform investments with similar objectives and strategies.

Amortized Cost
If the deviation between the portfolio’s amortized value per share and its market-based net asset value per share results in material dilution or other unfair results to shareholders, the portfolio’s board will take action to counteract these results, including potentially suspending redemption of shares or liquidating the portfolio.

Asset Transfer Program
The portfolio is subject to unique risks because of its use in connection with certain guaranteed benefit programs, frequently associated with insurance contracts. To fulfill these guarantees, the advisor may make large transfers of assets between the portfolio and other affiliated portfolios. These transfers may subject the shareholder to increased costs if the asset base is substantially reduced and may cause the portfolio to have to purchase or sell securities at inopportune times.

Bank Loans (also known as Senior Floating Rate Interests)
Investments in senior floating rate bank loans, which are rated below-investment grade, may be subject to a greater risk of default than investment grade loans, reducing the potential for income and potentially leading to impairment of the collateral provided by the borrower. Bank loans pay interest at rates that are periodically reset based on changes in interest rates and may be subject to the risk of optional or mandatory prepayment.

Capitalization
Assets invested in stocks of one or more capitalizations (small, mid or large) may be subject to a greater extent to both the specific risks of those capitalizations as well as increased volatility, since stocks of specific capitalizations tend to go through cycles of beating or lagging the market as a whole.

Cash Drag
To the extent that assets are held in cash and cash equivalents, the ability to meet the investment objective may be limited.

Cash Transactions
Redemptions of ETF shares for cash, rather than in-kind securities, may require the portfolio to sell securities. This may increase shareholder tax liability, potentially through capital gain distributions.

China Region
Investing in the China region, including Hong Kong, the People’s Republic of China, and Taiwan, may be subject to greater volatility because of the social, regulatory, and political risks of that region, as well as the Chinese government’s significant level of control over China’s economy and currency. A disruption of relations between China and its neighbors or trading partners could severely impact China’s export-based economy.

Closed-End Fund
Investments in closed-end funds generally reflect the risks of owning the underlying securities, although they may be subject to greater liquidity risk and higher costs than owning the underlying securities directly because of their management fees. Shares of CEFs are subject to market trading risk, potentially trading at a premium or discount to net asset value.

Commodity
Assets invested in commodity related instruments are subject to the risk that the performance of the overall commodities market declines and that weather, disease, political, tax and other regulatory developments adversely impact the value of commodities, which may result in a loss of principal and interest. Commodity-linked investments face increased price volatility and liquidity, credit and issuer risks compared to their underlying measures.

Compounding
Because the investment is managed to replicate a multiple or inverse multiple of an index over a single day (or similar short-term period), returns for periods longer than one day will generally reflect performance that is greater or less than the target in the objective because of compounding. The effect of compounding increases during times of higher index volatility, causing long-term results to further deviate from the target objective.

Conflict of Interest
A conflict of interest may arise if the advisor makes an investment in certain underlying funds based on the fact that those funds are also managed by the advisor or an affiliate or because certain underlying funds may pay higher fees to the advisor than others. In addition, an advisor’s participation in the primary or secondary market for loans may be deemed a conflict of interest and limit the ability of the investment to acquire those assets.

Convertible Securities
Assets invested in convertible securities may be subject to increased interest rate risks, rising in value as interest rates decline and falling in value when interest rates rise, in addition to their market value depending on the performance of the common stock of the issuer. Convertible securities, which are typically unrated or rated lower than other debt obligations, are secondary to debt obligations in order of priority during a liquidation in the event the issuer defaults.

Correlation
The value of derivatives may not correlate perfectly with either the overall market or the underlying asset from which the derivative’s value is derived.

Country or Region
Assets invested in issuers located in a particular country or region may be subject to a greater extent to the risks of adverse securities markets, exchange rates and social, political, regulatory or economic events which may occur in that country or region.

Credit and Counterparty
The issuer or guarantor of a fixed-income security, counterparty to an OTC derivatives contract or other borrower may not be able to make timely principal, interest or settlement payments on an obligation. In this event, the issuer of a fixed-income security may have their credit rating downgraded or default, which may reduce the potential for income and value of the portfolio.

Credit Default Swaps
Credit default swaps insure the buyer in the event of a default of a fixed-income security. The seller of a credit default swap receives premiums and is obligated to repay the buyer in the event of a default of the underlying creditor. Investments in credit default swaps may be subject to increased counterparty, credit, and liquidity risks.

Currency
Investing in securities traded in foreign currencies or more directly in foreign currencies is subject to the risk that the foreign currency will decline in value relative to the U.S. dollar, which may reduce the value of the portfolio. Investments in currency hedging positions are subject to the risk that the value of the U.S. dollar will decline relative to the currency being hedged, which may result in a loss of money on the investment as well as the position designed to act as a hedge. Cross-currency hedging strategies and active currency positions may increase currency risk, since actual currency exposure may be substantially different than suggested by the portfolio’s holdings.

Custody
Foreign custodial and other foreign financial services are generally more expensive than they are in the United States and may have limited regulatory oversight. The investment may have trouble clearing and settling trades in less-developed markets, and the laws of some countries may limit the investment’s ability to recover its assets in the event the bank, depository, or agent holding those assets goes into bankruptcy.

Depositary Receipts
Assets invested in depositary receipts generally reflect the risks of the securities they represent, although they may be subject to increased liquidity risk, higher expenses and may not pass through voting and other shareholder rights. Depositary receipts cannot be directly exchanged for the securities they represent and may trade at either a discount or premium to that security.

Derivatives
Investments in derivatives may be subject to the risk that the advisor does not correctly predict the movement of the underlying security, interest rate, market index or other financial asset. Since derivatives usually involve a small investment relative to the magnitude of liquidity and other risks assumed, the resulting gain or loss from the transaction will be disproportionately magnified. These investments may result in a loss if the counterparty to the transaction does not perform as promised.

Developing Companies
Assets invested in developing companies are subject to the risks that they succumb to intense competition or that their products and services do not succeed over the long term or quickly become obsolete in a rapidly developing marketplace. These securities may lose value if it appears their earnings expectations may not be met, even in a rising stock market environment.

Distressed Investments
Distressed investments, which include loans, loan participations, bonds, notes and non-performing and sub-performing mortgage loans, are often not publicly traded and face increased liquidity risk and price volatility. These securities are subject to the risk that the advisor does not correctly predict the outcome of their investment, which may result in a loss of part or all of the investment.

Dollar Rolls
Dollar rolls transactions may be subject to the risk that the market value of securities sold to the counterparty declines below the repurchase price, the counterparty defaults on its obligations or the portfolio turnover rate increases due to these transactions. In addition, any investments purchased with the proceeds of a security sold in a dollar rolls transaction may lose value.

Early Close/Late Close/Trading Halt
The investment may be unable to rebalance its portfolio or accurately price its holdings if an exchange or market closes early, closes late, or issues trading halts on specific securities or restricts the ability to buy or sell certain securities or financial instruments. Any of these scenarios may cause the investment to incur substantial trading losses.

Emerging Markets
Assets invested in emerging market securities may be subject to a greater extent to market, credit, currency, liquidity, legal, political and other risks compared to assets invested in developed foreign countries.

Equity Securities
The value of equity securities, which include common, preferred and convertible preferred stocks, will fluctuate based on changes in their issuers’ financial conditions as well as overall market and economic conditions, and can decline in the event of deteriorating issuer, market or economic conditions.

Event-Driven Investment/ Arbitrage Securities
Investing in risk arbitrage securities may not be successful if the merger, restructuring, tender offer or other major corporate event proposed or pending at the time of investment is not completed on the terms contemplated.

Exchange Holidays
Net asset value is not calculated on days and times when the U.S. exchange is closed, though foreign security holdings may still be traded. In this event, the net asset value may be significantly impacted when shareholders are not able to buy or sell shares.

Exchange Traded Funds (ETF)
Investments in exchange-traded funds generally reflect the risks of owning the underlying securities they are designed to track, although they may be subject to greater liquidity risk and higher costs than owning the underlying securities directly because of their management fees. Shares of ETFs are subject to market trading risk, potentially trading at a premium or discount to net asset value.

Exchange Traded Notes (ETN)
Investments in exchange-traded notes may be subject to the risk that their value is reduced because of poor performance of the underlying index or a downgrade in the issuer’s credit rating, potentially resulting in default. The value of these securities may also be impacted by time to maturity, level of supply and demand, and volatility and lack of liquidity in underlying markets, among other factors. The portfolio bears its proportionate share of fees and expenses associated with investment in ETNs, and its decision to sell these holdings may be limited by the availability of a secondary market.

Extension
The issuer of a security may repay principal more slowly than expected due to rising interest rates. In this event, short and medium-duration securities are effectively converted into longer-duration securities, increasing their sensitivity to interest rate changes and causing their prices to decline.

Financials Sector
Concentrating assets in the financials sector may disproportionately subject the portfolio to the risks of that industry, including loss of value because of economic recession, availability of credit, volatile interest rates, government regulation, and other factors.

Fixed Income Securities
The value of assets invested in fixed-income or debt securities may be susceptible to general movements in the bond market and are subject to increased interest rate and credit risk.

Foreign Securities
Assets invested in foreign securities may be subject to increased volatility as the value of these securities changes more rapidly and extremely than the value of U.S. securities. Foreign securities are subject to increased issuer risk, since foreign issuers may not experience the same degree of regulation as U.S. issuers, and are held to different reporting, accounting and auditing standards. In addition, foreign securities are subject to increased costs, since there are generally higher commission rates on transactions, transfer taxes, higher custodial costs and the potential for foreign tax charges on dividend and interest payments. Many foreign markets are relatively small, and securities issued in less developed countries face the risks of nationalization, expropriation or confiscatory taxation, and adverse changes in investment or exchange control regulations, including suspension of the ability to transfer currency from a country. Political changes or diplomatic developments can also negatively impact performance.

Forwards
Investments in forwards may increase volatility and be subject to additional market, active management, currency, and counterparty risks as well as liquidity risk if the contract cannot be closed when desired. Forwards purchased on a when-issued or delayed-delivery basis may be subject to risk of loss if they decline in value prior to delivery, or if the counterparty defaults on its obligation.

Futures
Investments in futures contracts and options on futures contracts may increase volatility and be subject to additional market, active management, interest, currency, and other risks if the contract cannot be closed when desired.

Futures Contracts and Options on Future Contracts
Futures contracts and options on futures contracts may increase volatility and be subject to additional market, active management, interest, currency and other risks if the contract cannot be closed when desired.

Growth Investing
Assets invested in growth securities may be subject to increased volatility as the value of these securities is highly sensitive to market fluctuations and future earnings expectations. These securities typically trade at higher multiples of current earnings than other securities, and may lose value if it appears their earnings expectations may not be met.

Hedging Strategies
Hedging strategies and other strategic transactions may increase volatility and result in a significant loss of value if a transaction fails. Since these transactions usually involve a small investment relative to the magnitude of market, counterparty, credit, interest and other risks assumed, the resulting gain or loss from the transaction will be disproportionately magnified. These transactions may result in a loss if the counterparty to the transaction does not perform as promised.

High Portfolio Turnover
Engaging in active trading may create high portfolio turnover, or a turnover of 100% or more, resulting in increased transaction costs. These higher costs may have an adverse impact on performance and generate short-term capital gains, creating potential tax liability even if an investor does not sell any shares during the year.

High Yield Securities
Assets invested in below-investment grade debt securities and unrated securities of similar credit quality, commonly known as “junk bonds” or “high yield securities,” may be subject to increased interest, credit and liquidity risk.

Income (also called Variable Dividend)
Income payments may decline depending on fluctuations in interest rates and the dividend payments of its underlying securities. In this event, some investments may attempt to pay the same dividend amount by returning capital.

Increase in Expenses
The actual cost of investing may be higher than the expenses listed in the expense table for a variety of reasons, including if a voluntary fee waiver is changed or terminated or if average net assets decrease. The risk of expenses increasing due to a decrease in average net assets is heightened when markets are volatile.

Index Correlation/Tracking Error
A portfolio that tracks an index is subject to the risk that certain factors may cause the portfolio to track its target index less closely, including if the advisor selects securities that are not fully representative of the index. The portfolio will generally reflect the performance of its target index even if the index does not perform well, and it may underperform the index after factoring in fees, expenses, transaction costs, and the size and timing of shareholder purchases and redemptions.

Index Management
A portfolio that tracks an index is subject to the risk that certain factors may cause the portfolio to track its target index less closely, including if the advisor selects securities that are not fully representative of the index. The portfolio will generally reflect the performance of its target index even if the index does not perform well, and may underperform the index after factoring in transaction expenses and the size and timing of its cash flows.

Industry and Sector Investing
Concentrating assets in a particular industry or sector of the economy may increase volatility, since the investment will be more susceptible to the impact of market, economic, regulatory and other factors impacting that industry or sector compared to a more broadly diversified asset allocation.

Inflation/Deflation
Inflation may cause the present value of future payments to decrease, causing a decline in the future value of assets or income. Deflation causes prices to decline throughout the economy over time, impacting issuers’ creditworthiness and increasing their risk for default, which may reduce the value of the portfolio.

Inflation-Protected Securities Interest Rate
Unlike other fixed-income securities, the values of inflation-protected securities are not materially affected by inflation expectations because their interest rates are adjusted for inflation. Generally, the value of inflation-protected securities will fall when real interest rates rise and rise when real interest rates fall.

Initial Public Offering (IPO)
Investing in initial public offerings may increase volatility and have a magnified impact on performance. IPO shares may be sold shortly after purchase, which can increase portfolio turnover and expenses, including commissions and transaction costs. Additionally, IPO shares are subject to increased market, liquidity, and issuer risks.

Interest Rate/Interest Rate Changes
Most securities are subject to the risk that changes in interest rates will reduce their market value.

Intraday Price Performance
The investment is rebalanced according to the investment objective at the end of the trading day, and its reported performance will reflect the closing net asset value. A purchase at the intraday price may generate performance that is greater or less than reported performance.

Inverse Floaters
Investments in inverse floaters may be subject to increased price volatility compared with fixed-rate bonds that have similar credit quality, redemption provisions, and maturity. The performance of inverse floaters tends to lag fixed-rate bonds in rising long-term interest-rate environments and exceed them in falling or stable long-term interest-rate environments.

Investment-Grade Securities
Investments in investment-grade debt securities that are not rated in the highest rating categories may lack the capacity to pay principal and interest compared with higher-rated securities and may be subject to increased credit risk.

Issuer
A stake in any individual security is subject to the risk that the issuer of that security performs poorly, resulting in a decline in the security’s value. Issuer-related declines may be caused by poor management decisions, competitive pressures, technological breakthroughs, reliance on suppliers, labor problems or shortages, corporate restructurings, fraudulent disclosures or other factors. Additionally, certain issuers may be more sensitive to adverse issuer, political, regulator, market or economic developments.

Issuer Non-Diversification
The investment is non-diversified under the Investment Act of 1940, and may be subject to increased credit, market and other risks than diversified investments since it may only invest in a relatively small number of issuers or foreign currencies. Movement in the prices of these securities may have a significant impact on the portfolio value, and any sale of the investment’s large positions in these securities could likewise adversely affect stock prices if those positions represent a significant part of a company’s outstanding stock.

Large Cap
Concentrating assets in large-capitalization stocks may subject the portfolio to the risk that those stocks underperform other capitalizations or the market as a whole. Large-cap companies may be unable to respond as quickly as small- and mid-cap companies can to new competitive pressures and may lack the growth potential of those securities. Historically, large-cap companies do not recover as quickly as smaller companies do from market declines.

Lending
Investing in loans creates risk for the borrower, lender and any other participants. A borrower may fail to make payments of principal, interests and other amounts in connection with loans of cash or securities or fail to return a borrowed security in a timely manner, which may lead to impairment of the collateral provided by the borrower. Investments in loan participations may be subject to increased credit, pricing and liquidity risks, with these risks intensified for below-investment grade loans.

Leverage
Leverage transactions may increase volatility and result in a significant loss of value if a transaction fails. Since leverage usually involves investment exposure that exceeds the initial investment, the resulting gain or loss from a relatively small change in an underlying indicator will be disproportionately magnified.

Long-term Outlook and Projections
Investors should be willing to hold their investment for a substantial period of time and tolerate fluctuations in their investment’s value.

Loss of Money
Since the investment’s market value may fluctuate up and down, an investor may lose money when he or she buys or sells the investment, including part of the principal.

Management
Performance is subject to the risk that the advisor’s asset allocation and investment strategies do not perform as expected, which may cause the portfolio to underperform its benchmark, other investments with similar objectives, or the market in general. The investment is subject to the risk of loss of income and capital invested, and the advisor does not guarantee its value, performance, or any particular rate of return.

Market Trading
Because shares of the investment are traded on the secondary market, investors are subject to the risks that shares may trade at a premium or discount to net asset value. There is no guarantee that an active trading market for these shares will be maintained.

Market/Market Volatility
The market value of the portfolio’s securities may fall rapidly or unpredictably due to changing economic, political or market conditions, which may reduce the value of the portfolio.

Master/Feeder
The portfolio is subject to unique risks related to the master/feeder structure. Feeder funds bear their proportionate share of fees and expenses associated with investment in the master fund. The performance of a feeder fund can be impacted by the actions of other feeder funds, including if a larger feeder fund maintains voting control over the operations of the master fund or if large-scale redemptions by another feeder fund increase the proportionate share of costs of the master fund for the remaining feeder funds.

Master Limited Partnership (MLP)
Investments in master limited partnerships may be subject to the risk that their value is reduced because of poor performance of the underlying assets or if they are not treated as partnerships for federal income tax purposes. Investors in MLPs have more-limited control and voting rights on matters affecting the partnership compared with shareholders of common stock.

Maturity/Duration
Assets invested in securities with longer maturities or durations typically have higher yields but may be subject to increased interest risk and price volatility compared to securities with shorter maturities, which have lower yields but greater price stability.

Mid-Cap
Concentrating assets in mid-capitalization stocks may subject the portfolio to the risk that those stocks underperform other capitalizations or the market as a whole. Mid-cap companies may be subject to increased liquidity risk compared with large-cap companies and may experience greater price volatility than do those securities because of more-limited product lines or financial resources, among other factors.

Money Market
The risks pertaining to money market funds, those in compliance with Rule 2a-7 under the Investment Company Act of 1940, vary depending on the fund’s operations as reported in SEC Form N-MFP. Institutional money market funds are considered those that are required to transact at a floating net asset value. These funds can experience capital gains and losses in normal conditions just like other mutual funds. Additionally, most institutional, government, and retail money market funds may impose a fee upon the sale of your shares, or may suspend your ability to sell shares if the fund's liquidity falls below required minimums, because of market conditions or other factors. While retail and government funds electing to maintain liquidity through suspending redemptions or imposing fees attempt to preserve the value of shares at $1.00, the funds cannot guarantee they will do so. Some government money market funds have not elected to permit liquidity fees or suspend redemptions. Although these funds also seek to preserve the value of investments at $1.00 per share, they cannot guarantee they will do so. An investment in any money market fund is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency and can result in a loss of money. The fund's sponsor has no legal obligation to provide financial support to the fund, and you should not expect that the sponsor will provide financial support to the fund at any time.

Money Market Fund Ownership
An investment in a money market fund is not a deposit in a bank and is not guaranteed by the FDIC, any other governmental agency, or the advisor itself. Money market funds report investment characteristics in SEC Form N-MFP. Institutional money market funds have a net asset value that may fluctuate on a day-to-day basis in ordinary conditions. All are subject to the risk that they may not be able to maintain a stable NAV of $1.00 per share. Money market funds may opt to maintain liquidity through imposing fees on certain redemptions or a suspension of redemptions because of market conditions. Only exempt government money market funds are permitted to opt out of incorporating these liquidity maintenance measures to support the stable share price of $1.00.

Mortgage-Backed and Asset-Backed Securities
Asset-backed securities (ABS) are debt notes backed by financial assets. Mortgage-backed securities (MBS) are essentially a type of ABS that are backed by mortgages rather than other loans. MBS are bonds that represent claims to the cash flows from pools of mortgage loans, most commonly on residential property. Mortgage loans are purchased from banks, mortgage companies, and other originators and then assembled into pools by a government agency or corporation. The entity then issues securities that represent claims on the principal and interest payments made by borrowers on the loans in the pool. These securities may decline in value due to changes in interest rates, issuer information availability, credit quality of the underlying assets, market perception of the issuer, availability of credit enhancement and prepayment of principal.

Multi-Manager
Managers’ individual investing styles may not complement each other. This can result in both higher portfolio turnover and enhanced or reduced concentration in a particular region, country, industry or investing style compared to an investment with a single manager.

Municipal Obligations, Leases, and AMT-Subject Bonds
Assets invested in municipal obligations, leases and AMT-subject bonds are subject to varying levels of public and private support. Whereas the principal and interest payments of general obligation municipal bonds are secured by the issuer’s full faith and credit and supported by limited or unlimited taxing power, the principal and interest payments of revenue bonds are tied to the revenues of specific projects or other entities. Investing in AMT-subject bonds, which have tax benefits, may be subject to the risk that federal income tax laws limiting the types and volume of bonds qualifying for tax exemption of interest make any further purchases of tax-exempt securities taxable.

Municipal Project-Specific
Assets invested in municipal bonds, including those relating to education, health care, housing, transportation, utilities and industry, may be subject to a greater extent to the risks of adverse economic, business or political developments.

New Fund
Investments with a limited history of operations may be subject to the risk that they do not grow to an economically viable size in order to continue operations.

Nondiversification
A nondiversified investment, as defined under the Investment Act of 1940, may have an increased potential for loss because its portfolio includes a relatively small number of investments. Movements in the prices of the individual assets may have a magnified effect on a nondiversified portfolio. Any sale of the investment’s large positions could adversely affect stock prices if those positions represent a significant part of a company’s outstanding stock.

Not FDIC Insured
The investment is not a deposit or obligation of, or guaranteed or endorsed by, any bank, and is not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Reserve Board, or any other U.S. governmental agency.

Options Investing
Investments in options may be subject to the risk that an advisor does not correctly predict the movement of an option’s underlying stock, resulting in the loss of part or all of the amount paid for the option plus commission costs.

OTC
Investments traded and privately negotiated in the over-the-counter market, including securities and derivatives, may be subject to greater price volatility and liquidity risk than transactions made on organized exchanges. Because the OTC market is less regulated, OTC transactions may be subject to increased credit and counterparty risk.

Other
The investment’s performance may be impacted by its concentration in a certain type of security, adherence to a particular investing strategy or unique aspect of its structure and costs.

Passive Management
The investment is not actively managed, and the advisor does not attempt to manage volatility or take defensive positions in declining markets. This passive management strategy may subject the investment to greater losses during general market declines than actively managed investments.

Portfolio Diversification
Investments that concentrate their assets in a relatively small number of issuers, or in the securities of issuers in a particular market, industry, sector, country, or asset class, may be subject to greater risk of loss than is a more widely diversified investment.

Preferred Stocks
Assets invested in preferred stocks may be subject to the risks of deferred distribution payments, involuntary redemptions, subordination to debt instruments, a lack of liquidity compared to common stocks, limited voting rights and sensitivity to interest rate changes.

Prepayment (Call)
The issuer of a debt security may be able to repay principal prior to the security’s maturity, due to an improvement in their credit quality or falling interest rates. In this event, this principal may have to be reinvested in securities with lower interest rates than the original securities, reducing the potential for income.

Pricing
Market conditions may make it difficult to value some investments, and so the value determined for an investment through a subjective valuation methodology, like fair value pricing, may differ from the actual value realized upon sale. Valuation methodologies may also be used to calculate a daily NAV.

Quantitative Investing
Holdings that are selected by quantitative analysis may perform differently from the market as a whole based on the factors used in the analysis, the weighting of each factor and how the factors have changed over time.

Real Estate/REIT Sector
Concentrating assets in the real estate sector or REITs may disproportionately subject the portfolio to the risks of that industry, including loss of value because of changes in real estate values, interest rates, and taxes, as well as changes in zoning, building, environmental, and other laws, among other factors. Investments in REITs may be subject to increased price volatility and liquidity risk, and shareholders indirectly bear their proportionate share of expenses because of their management fees.

Regulation
The issuer or market value of a security may be impacted adversely by new or changing regulations as they are adopted by governments or other regulatory bodies.

Regulation/Government Intervention
The business of the issuer of an underlying security may be adversely impacted by new regulation or government intervention, impacting the price of the security. Direct government ownership of distressed assets in times of economic instability may subject the portfolio's holdings to increased price volatility and liquidity risk.

Reinvestment
Payments from debt securities may have to be reinvested in securities with lower interest rates than the original securities.

Reliance on Trading Partners
Investments in economies that depend heavily on trading with key partners may be subject to the risk that any reduction in this trading may adversely impact these economies.

Replication Management
The investment does not seek investment returns in excess of the underlying index. Therefore, it will not generally sell a security unless it was removed from the index, even if the security’s issuer is in financial trouble.

Repurchase Agreements
Repurchase agreements may be subject to the risk that the seller of a security defaults and the collateral securing the repurchase agreement has declined and does not equal the value of the repurchase price. In this event, impairment of the collateral may result in additional costs.

Restricted/Illiquid Securities
Investments in illiquid securities may be subject to increased pricing risk and may reduce the value of the portfolio if the securities cannot be sold when desired. Investing in restricted securities may subject the fund to higher costs and liquidity risk.

Sampling
Although the portfolio tracks an index, it maintains a smaller number of holdings than does the index. Use of this representative sampling approach may lead the portfolio to track the index less closely.

Shareholder Activity (Redemption)
Frequent purchases or redemptions by one or multiple investors may harm other shareholders by interfering with the efficient management of the portfolio, increasing brokerage and administrative costs and potentially diluting the value of shares. Additionally, shareholder purchase and redemption activity may impact the per-share net income and realized gains distribution amounts, if any, potentially increasing or reducing the tax burden on the shareholders who receive those distributions.

Short Sale
Selling securities short may be subject to the risk that an advisor does not correctly predict the movement of the security, resulting in a loss if a security must be purchased on the market above its initial borrowing price to return to the lender, in addition to interest paid to the lender for borrowing the security.

Small Cap
Concentrating assets in small-capitalization stocks may subject the portfolio to the risk that those stocks underperform other capitalizations or the market as a whole. Smaller, less-seasoned companies may be subject to increased liquidity risk compared with mid- and large-cap companies and may experience greater price volatility than do those securities because of limited product lines, management experience, market share, or financial resources, among other factors.

Socially Conscious
Adhering to social or moral criteria may preclude potentially profitable opportunities in sectors or firms that would otherwise be consistent with the investment objective and strategy.

Sovereign Debt
Assets invested in debt securities issued or guaranteed by foreign governmental entities are subject to the risk that an entity may delay or refuse to pay interest or principal on its sovereign debt due to cash flow problems, insufficient foreign reserves or political or other considerations. In this event, there is no legal process for collecting sovereign debts that a governmental entity has not repaid.

Structured Products
Investments in structured products may be more volatile, less liquid, and more difficult to price than other assets. These securities bear the risk of the underlying investment as well as counterparty risk. Securitized structured products including CMOs, CDOs, and other securitized products may increase volatility and be subject to increased liquidity and pricing risks compared with investing directly in the assets securitized within the product. Assets invested in structured products may be subject to full loss of value if the counterparty defaults on its obligation.

Suitability
Investors are expected to select investments whose investment strategies are consistent with their financial goals and risk tolerance.

Swaps
Investments in swaps, such as interest-rate swaps, currency swaps and total return swaps, may increase volatility and be subject to increased liquidity, credit, and counterparty risks. Depending on their structure, swaps may increase or decrease the portfolio’s exposure to long- or short-term interest rates, foreign currency values, corporate borrowing rates, security prices, index values, inflation rates, credit, or other factors.

Target Date
Target-date funds, also known as lifecycle funds, shift their asset allocation to become increasingly conservative as the target retirement year approaches. Still, investment in target-date funds may lose value near, at, or after the target retirement date, and there is no guarantee they will provide adequate income at retirement.

Tax Management
A tax-sensitive investment strategy that uses hedging or other techniques may fail to limit distributions of taxable income and net realized gains and therefore create some tax liability for shareholders.

Tax Risk
Investors may be liable to pay state and federal taxes on income and capital gains distributions paid out by the investment.

Tax-Exempt Securities
Tax-exempt securities could be reclassified as taxable by the IRS or a state tax authority, or their income could be reclassified as taxable by a future legislative, administrative or court action. This may result in increased tax liability as interest from a security becomes taxable, and such reclassifications could be applied retroactively.

Technology Sector
Concentrating assets in the technology sector may disproportionately subject the portfolio to the risks of that industry, including loss of value because of intense competitive pressures, short product cycles, dependence on intellectual property rights, legislative or regulatory changes, and other factors.

Temporary Defensive Measures
Temporary defensive positions may be used during adverse economic, market or other conditions. In this event, up to 100% of assets may be allocated to securities, including cash and cash equivalents that are normally not consistent with the investment objective.

Time-zone Arbitrage
Some shareholders might trade the investment to take advantage of the differences in value of foreign securities that result from events that occur after the close of these securities’ native exchanges and before the close of the New York Stock Exchange, when the investment’s net asset value is calculated. Successful time-zone arbitrage may dilute the interests of other shareholders.

Underlying Fund (also known as Fund of Funds, or Subsidiary)
A portfolio’s risks are closely associated with the risks of the securities and other investments held by the underlying funds, and the ability of the portfolio to meet its investment objective likewise depends on the ability of the underlying funds to meet their objectives.

Underlying Fund/Fund of Funds
A portfolio’s risks are closely associated with the risks of the securities and other investments held by the underlying or subsidiary funds, and the ability of the portfolio to meet its investment objective likewise depends on the ability of the underlying funds to meet their objectives. Investment in other funds may subject the portfolio to higher costs than owning the underlying securities directly because of their management fees.

Unrated Securities
Investments in unrated securities may be subject to increased interest, credit, and liquidity risks if the advisor does not accurately assess the quality of those securities.

U.S. Federal Tax Treatment
Investments in futures contracts, foreign transactions and other techniques that have special U.S. tax reporting rules are subject to the risk that changes in those rules may require a change in compliance measures, potentially impacting performance.

U.S. Government Obligations
Assets invested in U.S. government obligations are subject to varying levels of government support. In the event of default, some U.S. government securities, including U.S. Treasury obligations and Ginnie Mae securities, are issued and guaranteed as to principal and interest by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. Other securities, including Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, are obligations of U.S. government-sponsored entities but are neither issued nor guaranteed by the U.S. government.

U.S. State or Territory-Specific
Investments in the municipal securities of a particular state or territory may be subject to the risk that changes in the economic conditions of that state or territory will negatively impact performance.

Valuation Time
Net asset value is not calculated on days and times when the U.S. exchange is closed, though foreign security holdings may still be traded. In this event, the net asset value may be significantly impacted when shareholders are not able to buy or sell shares. Conversely, performance may vary from the index if the NAV is calculated on days and times when foreign exchanges are closed.

Value Investing
Assets invested in value securities may be subject to the risk that these securities cannot overcome the adverse factors the advisor believes are responsible for their low price or that the market may not recognize their fundamental value as the advisor predicted. Value securities are not expected to experience significant earnings growth and may underperform growth stocks in certain markets.

Variable-Rate Securities
Investments in variable-rate securities, which periodically adjust the interest-rate paid on the securities, may be subject to greater liquidity risk than are other fixed-income securities. Because variable-rate securities are subject to less interest-rate risk than other fixed-income securities, their opportunity to provide capital appreciation is comparatively reduced.

Warrants
Investments in warrants may be subject to the risk that the price of the underlying stock does not rise above the exercise price. In this event, the warrant may expire without being exercised and lose all value.

Zero-Coupon Bond
Investments in zero-coupon bonds, which do not pay interest prior to maturity, may be subject to greater price volatility and liquidity risks than are fixed-income securities that pay interest periodically. Still, interest accrued on these securities prior to maturity is reported as income and distributed to shareholders.